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Graphene

   

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Graphene is one of the most promise transparent electrode materials. However, pristine graphene films still typically fall short of expectation because of its relatively low work function and high sheet resistance. Various researches to increase the electrical conductivity and work function have been promoted. Generally, the sheet resistance can decreased to 30 ohm/sq by chemical doping such as AuCl3, HNO3, and the low work function can be compensated by PEDOT:PSS coating. However, these structures show poor electrical stability due to degradation of hole dominant carbon by reactive PEDOT:PSS. In addition, the optical properties of electrodes are depended on only intrinsic properties of graphene materials, and no way to enhance those properties. We therefore demonstrated a multilayer structure of graphene electrode sandwiched with dielectrics, which has high stability and superior optical properties. The inert metal oxide over-coated on graphene can protect the desorption of chemical dopants, enhancing the electrical stability to air exposure and maintained the low sheet.  In addition, dielectric sandwiched structure can enhance the optical properties of electrodes by satisfying the zero-reflection condition.